The place of women in society was not brought into focus until the movement for women’s liberation and suffrage in the sec ond half of the 19th century. Radical liberals and socialists were ac tive in formulating the demand for emancipation. The first woman to be admitted to a university (in 1871) and to earn her academic de gree (in medicine, at Groningen University in 1879) was Aletta Ja cobs, who played a prominent role in the international movement for universal suffrage. In 1935, the International Information Center and Archives for the Women’s Movement (IIAV) was founded in Ams terdam. In 1956, Margaretha Albertina Maria (“Marga”) Klompe be came the first female minister in a Dutch cabinet. The feministgroup Dolle Mina was active in the late 1960s.
   Like everywhere else, the women’s rights movement in the Nether lands has been slow in its progress. Since World War II, the struggle has been successful in several respects. Many discriminatory laws have been abrogated. More equal opportunities have been created for men and women. Marital power, for instance, was limited in 1956, and di vorce was extended in 1970. Through education, it is hoped, the chance has been created for equal job opportunities for women in the future, although in principle wages are currently equal for men and women. Al though more and more women are working in the professions, politics, and academia, the Netherlands still has, according to European stan dards, a relatively low (full-time) percentage of women in the labor market. Women’s studies and gender studies were introduced during the wave of “democratization” at the universities in the 1970s.

Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. . 2012.

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